Akan Teleteaching Course


3.6: Notes on grammar 3

List of tenses/aspects & negation (as treated so far)

1. Past tenses

Past Perfect Negated past Negated perfect
Person marker+verbal stem+reduplication of the final vowel end form*: same as on the non-end form with an additional -/-e or -(y) suffix** Person marker+ a +verbal stem Person marker+ a +homorganic nasal prefix -n +verbal stem Person marker+homorganic nasal prefix -n +verbal stem+reduplication of the final vowel end form*: same as on the non-end form with an additional -/-e suffix**
me-k- me-k--e me-a-k > mak me-a-n-k > mank me-n-k- me-n-k-e
wo-k- wo-k--e wo-a-k wo-a-n-k wo-n-k- wo-n-k--e
-k-/
-k-
-k--e/
-k--e
-a-k/
a-k
-a-n-k/
a-n-k
-n-k-/
-n-k-
-n-k--e/
-n-k--e
y-k- y-k--e y-a-k y-a-n-k y-n-k- y-n-k--e
mo-k- mo-k--e mo-a-k mo-a-n-k mo-n-k- mo-n-k--e
w-k- w-k--e w-a-k w-a-n-k w-n-k w-n-k--e

*End form of the past , resp. negated perfect is used when no object or complement follows the verb.
**The suffix is low-toned and has two forms: -/-e. If the final vowel of the verb is advanced, the suffix is - , if it is unadvanced, it will be -e []. Compare "Notes on pronunciation 2" (3.5).

2. Present tenses

"Habitual" Progressive Negation (habitual/progressive)
person marker plus verbal stem person marker+ re-+verbal stem person marker+homorganic nasal prefix -n+verbal stem
me-k me-re-k [me:k] me-n-k
wo-k wo-re-k [wo:k] wo-n-k
-k/k -re-k/-re-k [:k]/ [:k] -n-k/-n-k
y-k y-re-k [y:k] y-n-k
mo-k mo-re-k [mo:k] mo-n-k
w-k w-re-k [w:k] w-n-k

3. Future tense

Future Negation
person marker+ b+verbal stem person marker(High tone!)+homorganic nasal prefix -n+verbal stem
me-b-k > mk me-n-k
wo-b-k wo-n-k
-b-k/-b-k -n-k/-n-k
y-b-k y-n-k
mo-b-k mo-n-k
w-b-k w-n-k

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