Akan Teleteaching Course

10.5: Notes on pronunciation

Linking tone 2 (-> part 1, -> link tone chat)

B. Dependent predicates

CV(C)V verb stems
f = focus
(1) Y-h ska. "We need money." f-neutral
(2) Ska na y-h!. "It is money we need." out-of-f mark
(3) Mehunuu abfra b. "I saw a child." f-neutral
(4) Abfra b na mehunuu no. "It is a child that I saw." out-of-f mark
(5) Abfra a mehunuu no no.* "The child that I saw …" relative clause
(6) -ba !ha. "He comes here." f-neutral
(7) Ba na -ba !ha. "He dares to come here." out-of-f mark
(8) Ado b-boa yn. "Addo will help us." b future = H
(9) Ado na b-boa yn. "Addo is the one who will help us." b future = H
CV verb
(10) Ba na !ba. "He dares to come." verb-f / SPM => H (out-of-f mark)
Multiple & embedded predicates
(11) Me-p s -boa me. "I want that he helps me."
(12) no na me-p s -bo!a me. "I want him (and no-one else) to help me." complement S

*The most arresting resemblance between the two constructions … concerns tone: viz., in the formation of both relative and out-of-focus clauses, certain underlying tones must be replaced by high tones, and exactly the same replacements must occur in both clause types." (Schachter, 1973: 22 f.)

C. Verb serialisation and focus extraction: spread of linking tone

"He shot Kofi with a gun."
(1) - y tuo fr ne kotokuo mu to b Kof kum no.
3s- pull-out gun come-from 3sPOSS pocket inside threw hit Kofi kill 3sOBJ
"He took the gun from his pocket and killed Kofi."
(2) Kof na - y tuo fr ne kotokuo mu to b no kum no.
Kofi FOC 3s- pull-out gun come-from 3sPOSS pocket inside threw hit 3sOBJ kill 3sOBJ
1. "It was Kofi whom he took the pistol came-out-of his pocket shot dead."
2. "It was Kofi who took the pistol came-out-of his pocket shot him dead."
3. "It was Kofi out of whose pocket he…"
(3) Etuo na - yi fr ne kotokuo mu to b Kof kum no.
gun FOC 3s- pull-out come-from 3sPOSS pocket inside threw hit Kofi kill 3sOBJ
"It was the pistol that he took from his pocket and shot Kofi dead with."
(4) Kof na - y tuo fr ne kotokuo mu to b ne ba kum no.
Kofi FOC 3s- pull-out gun come-from 3sPOSS pocket inside threw hit 3sPOSS child kill 3sOBJ
1. "It was Kofi whose son he … shot."
2. "It was Kofi who … shot his son."

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