Akan Teleteaching Course

Annex 1: General bibliography

0. General, classification

Bendor-Samuel, John T. (ed.), 1989. The Niger-Congo Languages. New York: Academic Press.

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1892. Die Sprachen Afrikas. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer. (= Sonderabdruck aus dem IX. & X. Jahresbericht des Württ. Vereins für Handelsgeographie.) -> Christaller page

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1986. "The Languages of the Akan Peoples". Research Review. New Series vol. 2/1. 1-22.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena & Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu, 1988. "The Volta-Comoe Languages". In: M.E. Kropp Dakubu, The Languages of Ghana. pp. 50-90; Akan: pp. 50-76.

Greenberg, Joseph H., 1966. The Languages of Africa. Den Haag: Mouton.

Grimes, Barbara F. (ed.), 1996. Ethnologue. Languages of the World vol. 1-3 (incl. Language Name Index and Language Family Index). Dallas: SIL. [13th ed.], -> Ethnologue on-line

Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther (ed.), 1988. The Languages of Ghana. New York: Kegan Paul.

Stewart, John M., 1971. "Niger-Congo, Kwa". In: Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.) Current Trends in Linguistics. Vol. 7: Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Stewart, John M., 1976. "Towards Volta-Congo Reconstruction" (= Presentation at the Rijksuniversiteit in Leiden, 8.10.1976). Leiden: Universitaire Pers.

Stewart, John M., 1989. "Kwa". In: John T. Bendor-Samuel (ed.), The Niger-Congo Languages. 216-245.

Williamson, Kay, 1989. Niger-Congo Overview. In: John T. Bendor-Samuel & Rhonda Hartell (eds.) The Niger-Congo Languages. Lanham: University Press of America. 3-46.

1. Bibliography

Amedekey, E.Y. 1970. The Culture of Ghana - A Bibliography. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.

Warren, Dennis Michael, 1976. Bibliography and Vocabulary of the Akan (Twi-Fante). Bloomington: Indiana University.

2. Phonetics, phonology, tonology, orthography

Akan Language Committee, 1995. Akan Orthography. Spelling Rules. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.

Bearth, Thomas, 1994. "Christaller als Tonologe". In: T. Bearth et al. (eds.), Perspektiven afrikanistischer Forschung. X. Afrikanistentag, Zürich 1993. Zürich/Bern: Seminar für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft/Schweizerische Afrika-Gesellschaft. 27-37.

Berry, Jack, 1955. "A Note on Twi Accents". In: J. Lukas (ed.), Afrikanistische Studien. Berlin. 295-298.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1963. "Palatality as a Factor in Twi Vowel Harmony". Journal of African Languages 2. 133-139.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1988. "Problems of Palatalisation in Akan". Journal of African Languages 18/1. 3-16.

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1881b. (Preface to J.G. Christaller) A Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language called Tshi (Chwee, Twi). Basel: Evangelical Missionary Society.

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1893. Die Töne der Neger-Sprachen. Basel: Verlag der Missionsbuchhandlung. (broch.) -> Christaller page

Clark, Mary M., 1992. "Downstep and Downdrift". In: W. Bright (ed.) International Encyclopedy of Linguistics vol. 1. 371-3.

Clements, G.N., 1985. "Akan Vowel Harmony: A Nonlinear Analysis". In: Didier L. Goyvaerts (ed.) African Linguistics. Essays in Memory of M.W.K. Semikenke. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 55-98.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1986. "Tone and Grammar in Akan: the Tone of Possessive Constructions in the Asante Dialect". In: The Phonological Representation of Suprasegmentals, ed. K. Bogers, H. van der Hulst & M. Mous. Dordrecht: Foris.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1988. The Akan (Twi-Fante) Language. Its Sound System and Tonal Structure. Accra: Ghana Universities Press. -> Links to consonant chart, vowel chart

Fromkin, Victoria A., 1977. "The Phonology of Akan Revisited". In: Paul F.A. Kotey & Haig Der-Houssikian (eds.), Language and Linguistic Problems in Africa. Columbia (South Carolina): Hornbeam Press.

Krampah, D.E.K. & J. Gyekye-Aboagye, 1998. "The Akan Experience of Harmonisation and Standardisation". In: Prah, K.K. Distinction and Extinction - The Harmonisation & Standardisation of African Languages. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. 75-90.

Lepsius, Richard, 1855. Das allgemeine linguistische Alphabet. Grundsätze der Übertragung fremder Schriftsysteme und bisher noch ungeschriebener Sprachen in europäische Buchstaben. Berlin: Martin Söndig oHG.

Lepsius, Richard, 1863. Standard Alphabet for Reducing Unwritten Languages and Foreign Graphic Systems to a Uniform Orthography in European Letters. London/Berlin.

Lindau, Mona, 1978. "Vowel Features". Language 54/3. 541-563.

Mensah, E.N.A., 1977. "Problems of Palatalisation in Akan". Transactions of the Linguistic circle of Accra 2. 64-76.

Mensah, E.N.A., 1982. "The Feature 'Lingual' and the Akan Consonant System". Journal of West African Languages 12. 24-33.

Ministry of Education (Gold Coast), s.a. Twi Spelling Book.

Nyaggah, Lynette, 1976. "Associative Tone and Syllable Structure in Asante Twi". In: Papers in African Linguistics, in Honor of Wm. E. Welmers. 191-200.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1992. "A phonetic description of some repair sequences in Akan conversation". Text 12/1. 59-80.

Pike, Kenneth L., 1967. "Tongue Root Position in Practical Phonetics". Phonetica 17. 129-140.

Schachter, Paul & Victoria A. Fromkin, 1968. A Phonology of Akan: Akuapem, Asante, Fante (= UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 9).

Schachter, Paul, 1969. "Natural Assimilation Rules in Akan". International Journal of American Linguistics 35/4. 342-355.

Stewart, John M., 1965. "The Typology of the Twi Tone System". Preprint from The Bulletin of the Institute of African Studies (Legon) 1. 1-27.

Stewart, John M., 1967. "Tongue Root Position in Akan Vowel Harmony". Phonetica 16. 185-204.

Stewart, John M., 1976. "The Final Light Syllables of Akan (Twi-Fante) and their Significance for Volta-Comoe Reconstruction". Mitteilungen der Basler Afrika Bibliographien 14, 93-156.

Stewart, John M., 1983a. "Akan Vowel Harmony: The Word Structure Conditions and the Floating Vowels". Studies in African Linguistics 14. 111-139.

Stewart, John M., 1983b. "Downstep and Floating Low Tones in Adioukrou". Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 5, 57-78.

Stewart, John M., 1983c. "The Asante Twi Tone Shift". In: Ivan R. Dihoff (ed.), Approaches to African Linguistics (Vol. 1), Ch. 14. Dordrecht: Foris. 235-243.

Tufuor, L.Y., 1982. "Le downstep automatique en twi". Cahiers ivoiriens de recherche linguistique 11. 43-60.

3. Morphology, syntax and semantics

Ameka, Felix, 1992. "Focus Constructions in Ewe and Akan: A Comparative Perspective". In: Collins, Chris and Victor Manfredi (eds.), Proceedings of the Kwa Comparative Syntax Workshop, MIT. = MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 17.

Baker, Mark C., 1989. "Object Sharing and Projection in Serial Verb Constructions". Linguistic Inquiry 20/4. 513-553.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1971. "Existential Sentences in Akan". Foundations of Language, 7: 19-29.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1974. "Focus-Marking in Akan". Linguistics 140, 5-57.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1990. "Questions in Akan". Frankfurter Afrikanistische Arbeitsblätter 2. 70-92.

Boakye, Paul, 1990. Syntaxe de l'achanti. Du phonème à la phrase segmentée. Berne: Peter Lang.

Bonato, Jasmina, 1997. "Tempus/Aspekt im Diskurs. Zur textbildenden Verwendungsweise von Präsens und Progressiv im Twi (Akan)". In: B. Sottas et al. (eds.), Werkschau Afrikastudien - le forum de Suisse des Africanistes. Hamburg: LIT. 307-315.

Danso, Mary, 1983. The formation of the Plural of Twi Nouns (= SAIS 6). Kiel: Seminar für Allgemeine und Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft.

Déchaine, Rose-Marie & Victor Manfredi (eds.), 1997. Object Position in Benue-Kwa. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.

Djirackor, Yao, 1998. "The Mode of Negation in Twi, Ga and Ewe - A Comparative Analysis". Papers in Ghanaian Linguistics No 11. 35-60.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1971. "A Classification of Akan Verb Stems". In: West African Linguistic Society, Actes du Huitième Congrès International de linguistique africaine. (= Annales de l'Université d'Abidjan, série H, fasc. hors série, vol. 1). Université d'Abidjan. 191-201.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1987. "On Negating the Consecutive Verb in Akan". Journal of West African Languages 18/1. 70-80.

Ellis, J. & Lawrence A. Boadi, 1969. "'To Be' in Twi". In: The Verb "Be" and its Synonyms, ed. J.W.M. Verhaar, Part 4, 1-71. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Forson, Barnabas, 1990. "On the Morphology of Akan Serial Constructions". In: J.P. Hutchison & V. Manfredi, Current Approaches to African Linguistics vol. 7. Dordrecht: Foris. 63-66.

Kalchofner, Peter, 1997. "Sein ist nicht gleich sein. Sprachwissenschaft als Grundlage der Sprachdidaktik". In: B. Sottas et al. (eds.), Werkschau Afrikastudien - le forum de Suisse des Africanistes. Hamburg: LIT. 300-306.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1992. Animacy: A Basis for Categorizing Akan Verbs. MS. Eugene: University of Oregon.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1994a. Aspects of Akan Grammar: A Functional Perspective. University of Oregon: Diss.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1994b. "From Serial Verbs to Prepositions and the Road Between". Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (= STUF) 47/1. 16-36.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1996. "The Object Relation in Akan". Afrika und Übersee 79. 57-83.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1997. "Serial Verbs and Grammatical Relations in Akan". In: T. Givón (ed.), Grammatical Relations, A Functionalist Perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 253-279.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1998. "Complementation in Akan". Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 19. 21-43.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1999. "Adjectives in Akan". Afrika und Übersee 82. 189-211. <for adjectives in Fante>

Reineke, Brigitte, 1983. "Zum Problem der valenzgebundenen Ergänzungen des Verbs im (Akuapem) Twi". Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 208-214.

Saah, Kofi K., 1988. "Wh-Questions in Akan". Journal of West African Languages 18/1. 17-28.

Saah, Kofi K. & Ejike Eze, 1997. "Double Objects in Akan and Igbo". In: R.M. Déchaine & V. Manfredi (eds.). 139-151.

Schachter, Paul. 1973. "Focus and Relativisation". Language 49:19-46.

Stewart, John M., 1963. "Some Restrictions on Objects in Twi". Journal of African Languages 2. 145-149.

Yelbert, Jonathan E., 1996. Etudes des énoncés comportant se dans la langue akan: invariance et variations. These, Universite de Paris X-Nanterre. (duplicated)

3b. Verb/object problematic and serialisation of verbs

Baker, Mark C., 1989. "Object Sharing and Projection in Serial Verb Constructions". Linguistic Inquiry 20/4. 513-553.

Déchaine, Rose-Marie & Victor Manfredi (eds.), 1997. Object Position in Benue-Kwa. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.

Djirackor, Yao, 1998. "The Mode of Negation in Twi, Ga and Ewe - A Comparative Analysis". Papers in Ghanaian Linguistics no 11. 35-60.

Forson, Barnabas, 1990. "On the Morphology of Akan Serial Constructions". In: J.P. Hutchison & V. Manfredi, Current Approaches to African Linguistics vol. 7. Dordrecht: Foris. 63-66.

Lord, Carol, 1973. "Serial Verbs in Transition". Studies in African Linguistics 4/3. 269-296.

Lord, Carol, 1993. Historical Change and Serial Verb Constructions. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1994. "From Serial verbs to Prepositions and the Road Between." Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (= STUF) 47/1. 16-36.

Reineke, Brigitte, 1983. "Zum Problem der valenzgebundenen Ergänzungen des Verbs im (Akuapem-)Twi". Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung. 208-214.

Saah, Kofi K., 1988:. "Wh-Questions in Akan". Journal of West African Languages 18/1. 17-28.

Saah, Kofi K. & Ejike Eze, 1997. "Double Objects in Akan and Igbo". In: R.M. Déchaine & V. Manfredi (eds.). 139-151.

Stewart, John M., 1963. "Some Restrictions on Objects in Twi". Journal of African Languages 2. 145-149.

4. Pragmatics, discourse

Agyekum, Kofi, 1996. Akan Verbal Taboos - In the Context of the Ethnography of Communication. MA Thesis. Trondheim/Norway: Department of Linguistics.

Agyekum, Kofi, 1997. "The Unmentionability of Death Among the Akans of Ghana". Legon Journal of Humanities 10: 43-61.

Ansu-Kyeremateng, Kwasi, 1998. "Communication in an Akan Political System". In: Ansu-Kyeremateng, K. (ed.), 1998, Perspectives on Indigenous Communication in Africa, Vol. II: Dynamics and Future Directions. University of Ghana: School of Communication Studies. 175-192.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1988. Conversational Strategies: Towards a Phonological Description of Projection in Akyem-Twi (Vowel Harmony, Ghana). Unpubl. D.Phil. dissertation. University of York.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1989. "Conversational Strategies: Towards a Phonological Description of Turn-Taking in Akan". Journal of West African Languages XIX/1. 104-120.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1991. "Pitch, Loudness and Turn Regulation in Akan Conversation". Grammatical Phonetics: York Papers in Linguistics 15: 221-235.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1992. "A Phonetic Description of Some Repair Sequences in Akan Conversation". Text 12/1. 59-80.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1993. "On a Morphosyntactic Description of Repair Sequences: Exemplification from Akan Discourse". Papers in Ghanaian Linguistics 8: 80-97.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1994. "Verbal Indirection in Akan Informal Discourse". Journal of Pragmatics 21/1. 37-65.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1997a. "Communication Strategies: Persuasion and Politeness in Akan Judicial Discourse". Text 17(1). 25-51.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1997b. "Language and Politics: Verbal Indirection in Political Discourse". Discourse and Society 8(1): 49-83.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1997c. "From Morphophonology to Sociolinguistics: Akan Hypocoristic Day-Names". Multilingua 16(1): 39-56.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1997d. "Indirectness in Pronominal Usage in Akan Discourse". Journal of Language and Social Psychology 16(2): 201-221.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1998. "Leading Litigants into Speaking the Unspeakable: A Linguistic Analysis of Cross-Examination Strategies in Akan Traditional Courts". In: Christina Jones (ed.), The Impact of Court Administrators in Africa on Judicial Proceedings.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1999a. "Apologies in Akan Discourse". Journal of Pragmatics 31: 709-734.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1999b. "Requests in Akan Discourse". Anthropological Linguistics 41(2): 175-194.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1999c. Conversational Strategies in Akan - Prosodic Features and Discourse Categories. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. -> Köppe on-line

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1988. "The Structure of Akan Newspaper Editorials - the Case of Wonsuom". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 15. 67-86.

Osam, Emmanuel Kweku, 1990. "Participant Identification in Akan Narratives". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 24. 31-51.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1989. The Proverb in the Context of Akan Rhetoric. A Theory of Proverbs (= Sprichwörterforschung Bd. 12). Bern: Peter Lang.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1991. "Power and the Circuit of Formal Talk". Journal of Folklore Research 28/1. 1-22.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1995a. "Introduction". In: Kwesi Yankah (ed.) Discursive Strategies in Africa. = Special issue of Text 15/2. 181-190.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1995b. "Metadiscourse: The Framing of Avoidance in Formal Encounters". Text 15/2. 229-252.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1995c. Speaking for the Chief. Okyeame and the Politics of Akan Royal Oratory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1996. Woes of a Kwatriot. No Big English. Ghana: Anansesem Publications.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1998. Free Speech in Traditional Society. The Cultural Foundation of Communication in Contemporary Ghana. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 20th November, 1997, at the University of Ghana, Legon. Accra Ghana Universities Press. 

Yankah, Kwesi (ed.), 1995. Discursive Strategies in Africa (= Special issue of Text). Text 15/2.

5. Grammars

Akrofi, Clement Anderson, 1965. Twi kasa mmara. Accra: Waterville Publishing House. <Twi grammar in Twi.>

Balmer, W.T. and Grant, F.C.F., 1929. A Grammar of the Fante-Akan Language. London: The Atlantis Press.

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1875/1969. A Grammar of the Asante and Fante Language called Tshi (Chwee, Twi). Basel. (Repr. Gregg.) -> Christaller page

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1988. The Akan (Twi-Fante) Language. Its Sound System and Tonal Structure. Accra: Ghana University Press.

Welmers, William Everett, 1946. A Descriptive Grammar of Fanti (= Supplement to Language 22).

6. Wordlists, dictionaries

Ahene-Affoh, 1991. Twi Kasakoa ne kasatõmmñ ahorow bi. Accra-North: Quick Service Books Ltd. <Idiomatic expressions in Akuapem Twi>

Akan Language Committee, 1995. Akan nsñmfua kyerñbea. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. <Spelling of Akan words>

Akrofi, Clement Anderson, G.L. Botchey & B.K. Takyi, 1996. An English-Akan-Eve-Ga Dictionary. Accra: Presbyterian Press. (Revised and enlarged edition. First ed. 1968.)

Berry, Jack, 1960. English, Twi, Asante, Fante Dictionary. Accra/Kumasi: Presbyterian Book Depot. London: Macmillan.

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1881. A Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language Called Tshi (Twi). Basel: Basler Mission. [2nd ed. 1933.] <Only Twi to English. Unexhaustive source for research purposes. No modern vocabulary. It is a rather tedious task to look up words in it> -> Christaller page

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb & Christian Wilhelm Locher & Johannes Zimmermann, 1874. A Dictionary, English, Tshi (Asante), Akra. Basel: Basel Evang. Missionary Society. -> Christaller page

Danso, Mary, 1983. The Formation of the Plural of Twi Nouns (= SAIS 6). Kiel: Seminar für Allgemeine und Indogermanische Sprachwissenschaft. <Word-formation as regards to nouns, with useful overview for nouns and their class characteristics>

Kotey, Paul, 1998. Twi Dictionary (Twi-English/English-Twi). New York: Hippocrene. -> Amazon books on-line

Kwaffo, S.J., 1997. Fa Bi Sie. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. <Idiomatic expressions in Akuapem Twi>

7. Introductory courses into spoken Twi/Didactics

Ankoma-Appiah, K. et al., 1988. Twi and English: A Brief Introduction and Guide For Teachers and Students. London: Inner London Education Authority.Bellon, Immanuel, 1955. Twi Lessons for Beginners. Kumasi/London: Basel Mission/Longmans, Green and Co. (rev.ed.)

Bellon, Immanuel, 1955. Twi Lessons for Beginners. London: Longmans, Green and Co. [rev. edition]

Denteh, A.C., 1988. Spoken Twi for Non-Twi Beginners. Accra New Town: Baafuor Edicational Enterprises Ltd.

Dolphyne, Florence Abena, 1996. A Comprehensive Course in Twi (Asante) for the Non-Twi Learner. Accra: Ghana University Press.

Frempong, Justin and Bearth, Thomas, 1994. "Introduction into Twi". Unpublished manuscript. University of Zurich.

Koranteng, E.O., n.d. Twi kasa hü nsñmmisa.

Kotey, Paul, 1995. "Tone in Second Language Acquisition: Three Competing Strategies for African Languages". In: A. Akinlabi (ed.), Theoretical Approaches to African Languages. 359-373.

Rapp, Ludwig Eugen, 1936. An Introduction to Twi - Twi ne Eôiresi kasa ôhyñômu. Basel: Evangelical Missionary Society. 

Redden, J.E., Owusu, N. et al., 1963. Twi Basic Course. Washington D.C.: Foreign Service Institute. <with audio-cassettes> [2nd ed. 1995 by Hippocrene Books, New York.] -> cf. Kotey (1998), Amazon books on-line

Stewart, John M., 1969. Drills for the Indicative Active Tenses of the Asante Verb. University of Ghana, Legon: Institute of African Studies.

Yeboa-Dankwa, Jonas, 1998. Basic Twi for Learners. Accra: Sebewie Publishers.

8. Drumming language

Nketia, J.H.K., 1971. "Surrogate languages of Africa". In: T. Sebeok (ed.) Current Trends in Linguistics vol. 7. 699-732.

Nketia, J.H.K., 1976. "Drumming in Akan communities". In: T. Sebeok & D. Umiker-Sebeok (eds.), Speech surrogates 2. 772-806.

9. Sociolinguistics

Bearth, Thomas, 1998a. "Christaller als Soziolinguist". In: I. Fiedler, C. Griefenow-Mewis, B. Reineke (eds.), Afrikanistische Sprachen im Brennpunkt der Forschung (= Tagungsband XII. Afrikanistentag Berlin 1996). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. 1-18. -> Köppe on-line

Bearth, Thomas, 1998b. "Christaller's Holistic View of Language and Culture. Its Influence on C.C. Reindorf's History". In: Paul Jenkins (ed.). The Recovery of the West African Past. African Pastors and African History in the 19th Century: C.C. Reindorf and Samuel Johnson. (= Papers from an international seminar held in Basel, Switzerland, 25th-28th October 1995 to celebrate the centenary of the publication of C.C. Reindorf's History of the Gold Coast and Asante. Basel: Basler Afrika-Bibliographien. 83-101.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1976. "Mother Tongue Education in Ghana". In: Ayo Bamgbose, Mother Tongue Education. The West African Experience. 83-112.

Boadi, Lawrence A., 1994. Linguistic Barriers to Communication in the Modern World. (= The J.B. Danquah Memorial Lectures. Twenty-Seventh Series. February 1994.) Accra: Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Bodomo, Adams B., 1996. "Linguistic Education and Politics: An Interplay on the Study of Ghanaian Languages". Languages of the World & Linguistic News Lines 10. -> Bodomo on-line (on "language and development in Africa: The case of Ghana")

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1881. (Preface to J.G. Christaller) A Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language called Tshi (Chwee, Twi). Basel: Evangelical Missionary Society. -> Christaller page

Ellis, J.O., 1971. Linguistics in a Multilingual Society (= An Inaugural Lecture delivered on 16th April 1970 at the University of Ghana, Legon). Accra: Ghana Universities Press.

Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther (ed.), 1988. The Languages of Ghana. New York: Kegan Paul.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi, 1997. "An analysis of the linguistic situation in Ghana". African Languages and Cultures. 10,1. 63-81.

Rusch, Günther, 1984. Die verhinderte Mitsprache. Aspekte zur Sprachpolitik in Ghana, Togo und Obervolta. Hamburg: Institut für Afrika-Kunde.

10. Proverbs, oral tradition, orality

Ampem, Agyewodin Adu Gyamfi, 1998. Akan mmñbusñm bi. Kumasi: University Press. <This book of Akan proverbs is the work of a Paramount Chief, containing 1637 proverbs with their English translation> 

Bannerman, J. Yedu, n.d. Mfantse-Akan Mbñbusñm Nkyerñkyerñmu. Ghanaian proverbs explained and translated into English.

Bonsu, Nana Ïsñe Yaw, 1994.The Wit of Akans. Kumasi: Terra Nover Printing Press. <contains 54 proverbs>

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb, 1879. Twi Mmebusñm mpensæ-ahansúa mmoaano - A Collection of Three Thousand and Six Hundred Tshi Proverbs in Use Among the Negroes of the Gold Coast Speaking the Asante and Fante Language. Basel: Evangelical Missionary Society -> Christaller page

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb & Kofi Ron Lange, 1990. Three Thousand Six Hundred Ghanaian Proverbs (From the Asante and Fante Language) Transl. by K.R. Lange. Leviston (N.Y.): Edwin Mellen Press. (= Studies in African Literature 2.) [bilingual edition]

Lange, Kofi Ron, 1988. Kwahu mmñbusñm - Kwahu Proverbs. Abetifi-Kwahu.

Opoku, Kofi Asare, 1995. Hearing and Keeping - Akan Proverbs. African Proverbs Series, Vo. 2, Series Editor, John S. Mbiti Accra: Asempa Publishers.

Reindorf, Carl Christian, 1895. History of the Gold Coast and Asante. Based on traditions and historical facts, comprising a period of more than three centuries from about 1500 to 1860. Basel/London/Christiansborg: Basel Mission/Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1989. The Proverb in the Context of Akan Rhetoric. New York: Peter Lang.

Yankah, Kwesi, 1998. Free Speech in Traditional Society. The Cultural Foundation of Communication in Contemporary Ghana (= Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 20th November, 1997, at the University of Ghana, Legon). Accra: Ghana Universities Press.

11. Ethno-semantics

Bellon, Immanuel, 1916. "Personen- und Ortsnamen der Tschi-Neger". Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin. Abteilung III, Afrikanische Studien, Jg. XIX. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei.

Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther, 1990. "Why Spider is King of Stories: The Message in the Medium of a West African Tale", African Languages and Cultures 3/1. 33-56.

Owusu-Sarpong, Christiane, 1998. "Language and the Cryptic Reality of Witchcraft (Bayie) in Asante". Papers in Ghanaian Linguistics no 11. 89-106.

12. Various, incl. history, culture, Akan texts, and contemporary issues

Ackah, C.A., 1988. Akan Ethics. A Study of the Moral Ideas and the Moral Behaviour of the Akan Tribes of Ghana. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.

Ayñ, E. Okraku, 1978. Mmerehua. Accra: Ghana Publishing Corporation. <Collection of ananse stories>

Buah, F.K., 1990/1998 (rev. ed.). A History of Ghana. London and Basingstoke: MacMillan Education Ltd. <This book traces, in outline, the history of Ghana from the beginning to 1995>

Fortes, Meyer, 1950/1987. "Kinship and Marriage Among the Ashanti". In: Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. and Forde, Daryll. African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. London and New York: KPI. 252-284.

Gyekye, Kwame, 1996. African Cultural Values. An Introduction. Philadelphia/Accra: Sankofa Publishing Company.

Gyekye, Kwame, 1997. Tradition and Modernity: Philosophical Reflections on the African Experience. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nkansa Kyeremateng, K., 1996a. The Akans of Ghana. Their History and Culture. Accra: Sebewie Publishers.

Nkansa Kyeremateng, K., 1996b. Akanfo Amammerñ (Akuapem Twi). Accra: Sebewie Publishers.

Tufuo, J.W. & C.E. Donkor, 1989. Ashantis of Ghana. People with a Soul. Accra: Anowuo Educational Publications. <Glorifying>

Vöhringer, Erich F., 1933. Das Sippensystem der Twi auf der Goldküste - Ein Twi-Text übersetzt und erläutert. Inaugural Dissertation. Berlin: Philosophische Fakultät der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. <the clan system of the Twi on the Gold Coast - a Twi text translated and explained>

Warren, Dennis Michael, 1973. The Akan of Ghana: An Overview of the Ethnographic Literature. Accra: Pointed Limited. [2nd ed. 1986]

Willis, W. Bruce, 1998. The Adinkra Dictionary: A Visual Primer on the Language of Adinkra. Washington: The Pyramid Complex. -> Willis on-line

Yankah, Kwesi, 1996a. Beloved Let us Laugh. (Series Woes of a Kwatriot). Ghana: Anansesem Publications.

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